History of electromobility
The first half of the 19th century
The discovery of an electric car is difficult to attribute to a particular person or country, as it must have been preceded by the emergence of components such as a battery or an electric motor. But staying with the vehicle, in the first half of the 19th century, inventors from all over the world - from Hungary, the Netherlands and the United States - began to play with the concept of a battery-powered vehicle, which led them to create an electric "vehicle".
Štefan Anián Jedlík
One of these scientists was the Hungarian Štefan Anián Jedlík, an experimental physicist and, by the way, a native of Nové Zámky, who is still considered the inventor of the dynamo and electric motor in our region. Its electric motor, the fixed and rotating part of which were formed by electromagnets, can still be admired by visitors to the Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest, together with instructions for use.
Another breakthrough in this area can be called the discovery of the electric locomotive "Galvani" by Robert Davidson from the forties of the 19th century. Because the zinc contained in the locomotive's battery was about 40 times more expensive than coal, Davidson's discovery did not last long. His almost 5-meter-long and 6-ton child Galvani was destroyed during his exhibition drive from Glasgow to Edinburgh. The unknown perpetrator is still said to have been a supporter of steam locomotives. Davidson's unquestionable pioneering intentions ran into the reality of a lack of the financial resources needed to develop them. The production of the battery cost a lot of money and its recharging required a change of chemicals inside. A lead-acid battery that did not face this problem was invented several years later.
1859 - Lead acid battery
The inventor of such the first rechargeable battery was the Frenchman Gaston Planté in 1859. This event suddenly gave hope for the transformation in the reality of not very usable electric vehicles into a practical companion. Lead-acid batteries are still used in some types of electric cars, as well as in conventional gasoline and diesel cars to start the engine - of course in a modified form.
1881 - The first electric tricycle
Gaston's rechargeable lead-acid battery was followed in 1881 by his compatriot Alphonse Faure and perfected so much that, thanks to its much higher capacity, it could finally become a product of industrial production. In the same year, he helped Faure create an electric car under the Jeantaud brand. The year 1881 was really rich in news from the "electric car" industry, as the Englishmen William Ayrton and John Perry came up with an electric tricycle - the first vehicle to use electric lights.
1894 - Electrobat
The year 1894 eventually marked a milestone in the development of electric vehicles, as engineers Henry Morris and Pedro Salom built the first successful electric car in Philadelphia, USA. Both men had previously been involved in the electrification of street trams in the city, helping to avoid the problems associated with vehicles previously dependent on animal power.
They patented their car on August 31, 1894, named it Electrobat, and equipped it with steel wheels, which were the only ones capable of carrying the 725 kg lead-acid battery at the time. Because Morris and Salom were people who were not satisfied with the first partial success, it did not take long, and a series of improvements in the fourth prototype managed to reduce the weight of the battery to 160 kilograms. Reducing the weight to a fraction of the original allowed you to replace the steel wheels with tires. Armed with advanced technology, Morris and Salom founded an electric freight and transportation company and used their invention as a modern replacement for the then popular carriages - horse-drawn carriages for passenger transport.
Henry Ford begins production of the Model T while his wife Clare buys the Detroit Electric Model C coupe.
1912 - The great decline of the electric car industry
Mass production of the Model T and the associated rapid decline in gasoline car prices contributed to visible interest in buying electric vehicles in the United States. These have once become two to three times as expensive in relation to their petrol counterparts.
Other reasons for the decline in interest were the low price of oil, the more developed road network and the desire of people to travel longer distances, the lower maximum speed of electric cars, or the limited infrastructure needed to recharge them. The unfavorable economic situation during the First World War and the stigma that electrically powered vehicles are a woman's issue also did not contribute to raising the image of such cars.
The nail in the coffin of electric cars was, paradoxically, the invention of the electric starter, which eliminated the inconvenient and physically demanding starting with a hand crank.
For many years, there has been a great decline in the production of electric cars ...
The decline lasted until the 1970s. The introduction of the Clean Air Act in 1963 and the oil embargo of the autumn of 1973 meant a refocusing on alternative propulsion vehicles. Sebring-Vanguard with Citicars' and Elcar Corporation became the stars among the manufacturers in those days.
It was not in Europe either. The Summer Olympics in Munich in 1972 were the perfect opportunity to present the first BMW electric car - the BMW 1602 E.
Increasingly stringent environmental laws have been fertile ground for the further development of electromobilism.
1992 - Škoda Favorit Eltra
In ours, one of the first cases of electric cars is the Škoda Favorit Eltra 151 L and 151 Pickup from 1992. Cars with a maximum speed of 80 km / h and a range of 80 km were exported to Switzerland, and later to other countries in Western Europe. At home, a few pieces were disassembled by the Czech Post, which saw in them a good adept for delivering shipments in the centers of large cities.
Just a few years later, Toyota introduces the Prius hybrid model to the Japanese market, and in 2000 it even introduced it to the world.
2008 - The first Tesla
The year 2008 was marked by the advent of the Li-Ion battery, which becomes part of the car of the American manufacturer Tesla Roadster.
Tesla is launching a revolutionary Model S sedan with a range of 425 km. The electric car receives 5 safety stars from U.S. Pat. Nationa Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
2013 Fiat 500e
In the US, environmental laws for car companies are relentless. Each must have at least one electric car in its portfolio. That is why FIAT presents its iconic 500 model in the 500e variant in 2013. Fully electric stylish car with a range of 140 km on a single charge. The car is intended only for the pampered American market and is sold only in California and Oregon. The cars are delivered in comfortable equipment, premium materials are used. The propulsion system, electrical equipment and battery are manufactured and supplied by the German company BOSCH. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles President Sergio Marchionne himself openly asked at a conference in Washington that motorists should not buy an electric Fiat 500e. "I hope you don't buy it, because every time I sell one, I lose $ 14,000." A new one is sold in the US for $ 32,000. Unfortunately, it is not possible to buy a new one in Europe, but thanks to us you can buy it right in Slovakia, for almost half the price of a new one. In this category, this stylish model has no competition in our country.